By definition, prejudice can't be reduced by calm discussion and reasoning. Most biased beliefs are intrinsically irrational and emotional, not logical. This reduces the chance that you can negotiate and really problem-solve compromise effectively together.
Instigating productive conflict Leadership Styles Given the large amount of research done on leadership, it is not surprising that there are several different ways to define or categorize leadership styles.
In general, effective leaders do not fit solely into one style in any of the following classifications. Instead, they are able to adapt their leadership style to fit the relational and Distinguish between assertive and submissive communication context. One common way to study leadership style is to make a distinction among autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire leaders.
These leadership styles can be described as follows: Autocratic leaders set policies and make decisions primarily on their own, taking advantage of the power present in their title or status to set the agenda for the group.
Democratic leaders facilitate group discussion and like to take input from all members before making a decision. While this is a frequently cited model of leadership styles, we will focus in more detail on a model that was developed a few years after this one. I choose to focus on this later model because it offers some more specifics in terms of the communicative elements of each leadership style.
The four leadership styles used in this model are directive, participative, supportive, and achievement oriented. House and Terrence R. Directive Leaders Directive leaders Leaders who provide psychological structure for their group members by clearly communicating expectations, keeping a schedule and agenda, providing specific guidance as group members work toward the completion of their task, and taking the lead on setting and communicating group rules and procedures.
Although this is most similar to the autocratic leadership style mentioned before, it is more nuanced and flexible. The originators of this model note that a leader can be directive without being seen as authoritarian.
To do this, directive leaders must be good motivators who encourage productivity through positive reinforcement or reward rather than through the threat of punishment.
Directive leaders provide structure and clear expectations for their group. To be effective they must be skilled motivators.
It can also be the most appropriate method during crisis situations in which decisions must be made under time constraints or other extraordinary pressures. Participative Leaders Participative leaders Leaders who work to include group members in the decision-making process by soliciting and considering their opinions and suggestions.
This style of leadership can also aid in group member socialization, as the members feel like they get to help establish group norms and rules, which affects cohesion and climate. As we learned earlier, this is good to a point, but it can become negative when the pressures lead to unethical group member behavior.
In addition to consulting group members for help with decision making, participative leaders also grant group members more freedom to work independently. This can lead group members to feel trusted and respected for their skills, which can increase their effort and output.
The participative method of leadership is similar to the democratic style discussed earlier, and it is a style of leadership practiced in many organizations that have established work groups that meet consistently over long periods of time.
US companies began to adopt a more participative and less directive style of management in the s after organizational scholars researched teamwork and efficiency in Japanese corporations. Japanese managers included employees in decision making, which blurred the line between the leader and other group members and enhanced productivity.
These small groups were called quality circles, because they focused on group interaction intended to improve quality and productivity. Cragan and David W. Wright, Communication in Small Group Discussions: An Integrated Approach, 3rd ed. West Publishing,— As we will learn later, some group roles function to maintain the relational climate of the group, and several group members often perform these role behaviors.
With a supportive leader as a model, such behaviors would likely be performed as part of established group norms, which can do much to enhance social cohesion. Supportive leaders do not provide unconditionally positive praise.Most Common Text: Click on the icon to return to nationwidesecretarial.com and to enjoy and benefit.
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Learning Objectives. This is an intermediate level course. After completing this course, mental health professionals will be able to: Identify transference and countertransference as they manifest themselves in therapy sessions.
Communication skills (verbal and written) Honesty/integrity. Interpersonal skills (relates well to others) The assumption that women are more relationship oriented, while men are more assertive, is an example of a stereotype.
while women have been viewed as more passive and submissive. Studies show that these particular stereotypes are. @Daran — No, My Part 1 was a response to the first question only in your Part nationwidesecretarial.com Part 2 was a response to the second question in your Part 1.
I had intended to work through them all, one after the other in order, as many as time would permit.
Ponerology, the science of evil, rooted in secret investigations, objectively studies how evil deceptively spreads destruction, waste, neglect & suffering, taking over systems & how to oppose abuse, heal victims & develop healthy, sustainable systems immune to .
Extrasensory Perception (ESP) Introduction. Although many of you reading this book, like myself, have few personal doubts that something like extrasensory perception is real, the effort to establish ESP as a scientific fact has been a continuous struggle the outcome of which still remains uncertain.