The constitution is rational in so far as the state inwardly differentiates and determines its activity in accordance with the nature of the concept.
It entered English in the nineteenth century. However, historians agree that the concept predates the label invented to describe it, encompassing the various meanings ascribed to humanitas, which included both benevolence toward one's fellow humans and the values imparted by bonae litterae or humane learning literally "good letters".
Those who earnestly desire and seek after these are most highly humanized. For the desire to pursue of that kind of knowledge, and the training given by it, has been granted to humanity alone of all the animals, and for that reason it is termed humanitas, or "humanity".
Gellius maintains that this common usage is wrong, and that model writers of Latin, such as Cicero and others, used the word only to mean what we might call "humane" or "polite" learning, or the Greek equivalent Paideia.
Yet in seeking to restrict the meaning of humanitas to literary education this way, Gellius was not advocating a retreat from political engagement into some ivory tower, though it might look like that to us.
He himself was involved in public affairs. According to legal historian Richard Bauman, Gellius was a judge as well as a grammarian and was an active participant the great contemporary debate on harsh punishments that accompanied the legal reforms of Antoninus Pius one these reforms, for example, was that a prisoner was not to be treated as guilty before being tried.
Teachers and scholars of Greek and Latin grammar, rhetoric, philosophy, and poetry were called and called themselves "humanists". For Cicero, a lawyer, what most distinguished humans from brutes was speech, which, allied to reason, could and should enable them to settle disputes and live together in concord and harmony under the rule of law.
The designation Religious Humanism refers to organized groups that sprang up during the late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
It is similar to Protestantismalthough centered on human needs, interests, and abilities rather than the supernatural. The first Humanist Manifesto was issued by a conference held at the University of Chicago in They identified humanism as an ideology that espouses reasonethicsand social and economic justiceand they called for science to replace dogma and the supernatural as the basis of morality and decision-making.
The coinage gained universal acceptance inwhen German historian and philologist Georg Voigt used humanism to describe Renaissance humanismthe movement that flourished in the Italian Renaissance to revive classical learning, a use which won wide acceptance among historians in many nations, especially Italy.
Inthe author of an anonymous article in a French Enlightenment periodical spoke of "The general love of humanity After the French Revolutionthe idea that human virtue could be created by human reason alone independently from traditional religious institutions, attributed by opponents of the Revolution to Enlightenment philosophes such as Rousseauwas violently attacked by influential religious and political conservativessuch as Edmund Burke and Joseph de Maistreas a deification or idolatry of humanity.
The Oxford English Dictionary records the use of the word "humanism" by an English clergyman in to indicate those who believe in the "mere humanity" as opposed to the divine nature of Christ, i. Thoughts on " —49states: There has been a persistent confusion between the several uses of the terms: Nasadiya Suktaa passage in the Rig Vedacontains one of the first recorded assertions of agnosticism.
Zarathustra's philosophy in the Gathas lays out a conception of humankind as thinking beings, dignified with choice and agency according to the intellect which each receives from Ahura Mazda God in the form of supreme wisdom.
The idea of Ahura Mazda as a non-intervening deistic god or Great Architect of the Universe was combined with a unique eschatology and ethical system which implied that each person is held morally responsible in the afterlife, for their choices they freely made in life.
Ancient Greece Main article: Ancient Greek philosophy 6th-century BCE pre-Socratic Greek philosophers Thales of Miletus and Xenophanes of Colophon were the first in the region to attempt to explain the world in terms of human reason rather than myth and tradition, thus can be said to be the first Greek humanists.
Thales questioned the notion of anthropomorphic gods and Xenophanes refused to recognise the gods of his time and reserved the divine for the principle of unity in the universe. These Ionian Greeks were the first thinkers to assert that nature is available to be studied separately from the supernatural realm.
Anaxagoras brought philosophy and the spirit of rational inquiry from Ionia to Athens. Periclesthe leader of Athens during the period of its greatest glory was an admirer of Anaxagoras.
Other influential pre-Socratics or rational philosophers include Protagoras like Anaxagoras a friend of Periclesknown for his famous dictum "man is the measure of all things" and Democrituswho proposed that matter was composed of atoms.
Little of the written work of these early philosophers survives and they are known mainly from fragments and quotations in other writers, principally Plato and Aristotle. The historian Thucydidesnoted for his scientific and rational approach to history, is also much admired by later humanists.
He was also the first Greek philosopher to admit women to his school as a rule. Medieval Islam See also: Early Islamic philosophy Many medieval Muslim thinkers pursued humanistic, rational and scientific discourses in their search for knowledge, meaning and values.
A wide range of Islamic writings on love, poetry, history and philosophical theology show that medieval Islamic thought was open to the humanistic ideas of individualismoccasional secularismskepticismand liberalism.
Now that you are safe and free to say whatever you please appoint some arbitrator who will impartially judge between us and lean only towards the truth and be free from the empery of passion, and that arbitrator shall be Reasonwhereby God makes us responsible for our own rewards and punishments.
Herein I have dealt justly with you and have given you full security and am ready to accept whatever decision Reason may give for me or against me.
For "There is no compulsion in religion" Qur'an 2: Peace be with you and the blessings of God!George Plasterer Home Page. Search this site. Navigation. Home. Sitemap.
Recent site activity. Home. edited by George Plasterer. Knee Family Tree. He wonders that everything that seems to give theology its particular splendor and dignity appears to receive honor from Hegel in an incomparably better way than that achieved by many .
LETTER I. By your permission I lay before you, in a series of letters, the results of my researches upon beauty and art. I am keenly sensible of the importance as well as of the charm and dignity .
Enjoy the best Immanuel Kant Quotes at BrainyQuote. Quotations by Immanuel Kant, German Philosopher, Born April 22, Share with your friends.
Philosophy of history is the philosophical study of history and the past. The term was coined by Voltaire. Hegel makes all the attributes of the contemporary European constitutional monarch into absolute self-determinations of the will.
He does not say the will of the monarch is the final decision, but rather the final decision of the will is the monarch. Apology by Plato, part of the Internet Classics Archive.